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welding types and definitions

Hardening – Operation of quenching steels from the austenitic temperature range so as to produce martensite or a hard structure. On detachment, it takes on an irregular shape and tumbles towards the weld puddle sometimes shorting between the electrode and work at irregular intervals. Friction welding techniques join materials using mechanical friction. The workpiece is not in the electrical circuit. Plastic welding: In plastic welding or pressure welding process, the pieces of metal to be joined are heated to a plastic state and then forced together by external pressure. The welding stick uses electric current to form an electric arc between the stick and the metals to be joined. Although similar to hafnium, zirconium provides a shorter service life. Welding produces stresses in materials. Shielding is obtained entirely from an externally supplied gas, or gas mixture. Welding is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by using high heat to melt the parts together and allowing them to cool, causing fusion. Welding Symbol – A graphical representation of a weld. Fatigue Strength – The resistance of a material to repeated or alternating stressing, without failure. This usually lowers the hardness and strength and increases the toughness of the steel. If the HAZ in hardenable steels is cooled rapidly, the area becomes excessively brittle. Low Carbon Electrodes – A non-filler metal electrode used in arc welding and cutting, consisting of a carbon or graphite rod, which may be coated with copper or other materials. The covering may contain materials providing such functions as shielding from the atmosphere, de-oxidation, and arc stabilization, and can serve as a source of metallic additions to the weld. Fatigue Limit – The maximum stress that a material will support indefinitely under variable and repetitive load conditions. Arc Welding or SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding): Arc welding is also called as Shielded Metal Arc welding, or simply referred to as ‘Stick’. High Speed Nozzle Design – Operates between 60-110 psig depending upon brand. Plunger – It is installed behind the removable seat in a plasma torch head to enable the safety interlock. Our staff have many, many years of knowledge and experience and want to share this with you! Depth of Bevel – The perpendicular distance from the base metal surface to the root edge or the beginning of the root face. A metallic carbide takes the form of very hard crystals. A connection between the ends or edges of two parts making an angle to one another of 135-180° inclusive in the region of the joint. Weld Face – The exposed surface of a weld on the side from which welding was done. This magnetic field causes the arc to flutter and blow, creating difficulty in controlling the arc. Out-of-Position Welds – Welds made in positions other than flat or horizontal fillets. Crater – A depression in the weld face at the termination of a weld bead. Cut Angle – The angle formed between the cut surface and a theoretical plane perpendicular to the plate surface. Digging – Refers to the arc characteristics that you normally see with a 6010 electrode. There are a variety of different processes with their own techniques and applications for industry, these include: This category includes a number of common manual, semi-automatic and automatic processes. Hot Crack – Also known as “auto crack,” resulting from stress concentration in relatively thin weld metal that is last to freeze. Have a question? 3-2) is used to designate the type of weld to be made, its location, dimensions, extent, contour, and other supplementary information. Inverter Power Source – A high performance plasma power source design which takes advantage of advanced power semiconductor circuitry to reduce the size and weight of the transformer and hence the overall size of the power source. Adopted during the 1970’s, “ferrite number” is not to be confused with “Percent Ferrite” that is still used in some cases. “Good” slag follow is when the puddle is clear with the travel speed at a rate that keeps the puddle oblong. It consists of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Each of these methods serves a variety of welding applications. Pressure may or may not be used and filler metal may or may not be used. Flat Welding Position – The welding position used to weld from the upper side of the joint at a point where the weld axis is approximately horizontal, and the weld face lies in an approximately horizontal plane. Flame Spraying (FLSP) – A thermal spraying process in which an oxy/fuel gas flame is the source of heat for melting the surfacing material. Electrode Extension – The length of electrode extending beyond the end of the contact tube. Learn how your comment data is processed. GMAW – ‘GMAW’ stands for ‘Gas Metal Arc Welding’, which is a term that encompasses both MIG and MAG welding. This type of crack is due to the high stresses involved in the cooling of a rigid structure. MIG welding requires the use of an inert shield gas. Occurs when using shielding gases other than those consisting of at least 80% argon and at medium current settings. This initial layer prevents further rusting and thus, the need to paint the steel is eliminated. Binary Alloy – An alloy composed of two elements. Dilution – The change in chemical composition of a welding filler metal caused by the admixture of the base metal or previous weld metal in the weld bead. The American Welding Society (AWS) has recognized more than 50 different types of welding processes, some of them are very popular among the industries such as Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) or stick welding, Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) also known as MIG/MAG welding process, Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) or TIG Welding, Submerged arc welding (SAW) and Flux-cored arc welding … Deposited Metal – Filler metal that has been added during welding, brazing or soldering. Root Penetration – The distance the weld metal extends into the joint root. Reverse Polarity – Welding condition when the electrode is connected to the positive terminal and the work is connected to the negative terminal of the welding power source. Also called Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW), Manual Metal Arc Welding (MMAW), or Flux Shielded Arc Welding. Welders and those of similar occupations work with these materials and different types of machinery to construct pieces of infrastructure such as buildings, bridges, automobiles, pipelines, ships and even aerospace technology. Every weld bead has two “toes”. Globular – Refers to the arc transfer when you can see the globules burning off and falling into the puddle as opposed to a “smooth arc”. Electrode Coating – The mixture of chemicals, minerals and metallic alloys applied to the core wire. That flame will head to the point where the gases are mixed. Contact Tip – That part of a gas metal arc welding gun or flux cored arc welding gun that transfers the welding current to the welding wire immediately before the wire enters the arc. Fatigue Failure – The cracking, breaking or other failure of a material as the result of repeated or alternating stressing below the material’s ultimate tensile strength. Transverse Weld Test Specimen – A weld test specimen with its major axis perpendicular to the weld axis. Equivalent terms are pulsed voltage or pulsed current welding. Bonded Fluxes – Bonded fluxes are manufactured by binding an assortment of powder together and then baking at a low temperature. Friction. There are many common applications for EBW, as can be used to join thick sections. Consumables are usually chosen to be similar in composition to the parent material, thus forming a homogenous weld, but there are occasions, such as when welding brittle cast irons, when a filler with a very different composition and, therefore, properties is used. The materials to be joined are subjected to a great deal of pressure before a linear friction movement creates heat to bond the workpieces together. Electron beam welding (EBW) is performed in a vacuum (with the use of a vacuum chamber) to prevent the beam from dissipating. Welding defects are generated in a welding job due to the faulty or poor technique used by the inexperienced or unskilled welder or due to fundamental difficulties in the welding operation. Undercut – A groove melted into the base metal adjacent to the toe or root of a weld and left unfilled by weld metal. Explored as a binder, holding the entire mass together either a point, a line joining the weld been. Low temperatures usually associated with liquified gases in the welding stick uses electric current to a bead! Formulated to form a thin continuous layer on a solid base metal heat... Called MIG ( metal inert gas ) ratio of length and width to displacement... Electrode Holder – a method to bond wood without the use of an inert shield gas impinges the arc combines! Edge preparation together with good penetration a 316L electrode has lower arc energy than a where... Applies surfacing material is removed during the any kind of cutting operation component are. 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