Paolo Bàrberi, in Advances in Agronomy, 2019. Balashanmugam et al. The seed is ground to a meal and used for bread or gruel (a light form of porridge produced by boiling meal in water or milk). They also observed significantly reduced weed infestation at the second and third weeding with turmeric planted at depths of 8, 12, and 16 cm, because of better canopy structure compared to shallow planted crops. It appeals to the modern consumer since these essential amino acids are low in cereals. are potential nitrate accumulators and may contain some soluble oxalates. The presence of wing bands and the dark abdominal markings can be used to differentiate melon fly from oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, respectively. Amaranthus spinosus Preferred Common Name; spiny amaranth Taxonomic Tree; Domain: Eukaryota Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Spermatophyta Subphylum: Angiospermae Class: Dicotyledonae; Summary of Invasiveness; A. spinosus is a serious weed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The grains are relatively high in potassium, magnesium, phosphate, iron, and vitamins B1 and B2. The embryo surrounds the centrally located starchy perisperm, which is mainly filled with starch granules. It is one of three Amaranthus species cultivated as a grain source, the other two being A. hypochondriacus and A. caudatus. Normally they hatch in 3–5 days. , In the folk medicine of India, the ash of fruits of Amaranthus spinosus is used for jaundice. Native to the lowland tropics in the Americas, spiny amaranth has spread through tropical and subtropical latitudes around the world (Holm et al., 1991), has become a major weed of rice in the Philippines (Chauhan and Johnson, 2009), and is moving into temperate regions in the United States. The main amaranth-producing countries are the tropical regions of South America, but also of Africa (especially for leaves of the amaranth plant), Central, and Southeast Asia (especially India), and to a minor extent also the warmer regions of North America. Atriplex confertifolia (shadscale). Habitat and Distribution > Distribution > Description. Natural History > Life Cycle. A spiny relative of amaranth called uray (A. spinosus L.) is common in some regions in the Philippines. (1991) reported that mulching reduced weed growth in turmeric fields. Weed control at the early vegetative phase is a must in turmeric cultivation, and paucity of labor is an emerging phenomenon in many countries, including India, which leaves the option for herbicide use as an effective means to control weeds. Amaranthus spinosus, commonly known as the spiny amaranth, spiny pigweed, prickly amaranth or thorny amaranth, is a plant is native to the tropical Americas, but is present on most continents as an introduced species and sometimes a noxious weed. Amaranthus spinosus var. nuttalliae (southern huauzontle). Chemical Compositions of Amaranth Seeds, K.P. Chenopodium berlandieri subsp. Adult. ; dandelion, Taraxacum sp. The larvae are white, and when they hatch are about the length of the egg. Melon fly is found in the tropical regions of Asia, a portion of east Africa, and on some Pacific islands. Grubben, G.J.H. Chromosome number varies with species in amaranth. Back and Pemberton (1914) reported that larvae developing in thick-skinned fruit such as cantaloupe and watermelon may remain in the fruit as full-grown larvae for several days before emerging. If some of the potential pseudocereals listed below can be commercialized, they would no longer be regarded as weeds. Rumex acetosa (sorrel dock). The adult often is found associated with plants that are not larval food sources, but rather provide sustenance for the adults. Granulate cutworm is active continuously in the south; adults, eggs and larvae have been collected during all months in Louisiana. The genus Amaranthus contains about 70 species. The eggs are deposited singly or in small clusters on the upper surface of foliage. It is an erect annual plant, ... Amaranthus cruentus, Amaranthus blitum, Amaranthus dubius, and Amaranthus tricolor. Chenopodium sp. Life cycle Annual . The relatively very large size of the embryo is shown in Fig. Atriplex hortensis (orache). The forewing bears distinct bean-shaped and round spots centrally, and these spots are linked by a small but sharply defined black bar. As an example, Australian aborigines were able to consume cycad seeds and yams but only after extensive preparation, which reduced the toxicity of the material. Sheikh International - Offering Amaranthus Spinosus, कच्ची जड़ी बूटी, Medicinal Raw Herbs, Ayurveda Herbs, Siddha Herbs in Dindigul, Tamil Nadu. Distinguished by flowers and pairs of spiny bracts that occur in the leaf axils. The plant is widely distributed throughout the tropics and warm temperate regions of Asia from Japan to Indonesia to India, the Pacific islands, native to tropical America and Australia as a weed in cultivated as well as fallow lands. Celosia argentea var. Tecticornia verrucosa. The three best-known pseudocereal crops are grain amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus; A. cruentus; A. hypochondriacus; family: Amaranthceae), quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa subsp. "Ethnopharmacological Approaches for Therapy of Jaundice: Part I", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Amaranthus_spinosus&oldid=993051631, Plants used in traditional Chinese medicine, Plants used in traditional African medicine, Articles containing Vietnamese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 15:13. Atriplex prostrata (hastate saltplant). Recently seven grain amaranths were resequenced; the genome assembly consisted of 377–466 Mb (mega base pairs). Calligonum polygonoides (phog, phogalli).The seeds are eaten raw in India. In Khmer language, it is called pti banlar and in Vietnamese giền and its ash was historically used as a grey cloth dye. Value Class Food The seeds are eaten by many songbirds. (2011), the seed of A. spinosus is used as a poultice for broken bones. Of the 34 families, 5 were monocotyledonous and 29 were dicotyledonous. The leaves are relatively broad and the blossom strands can reach a length of up to 90 cm. Newly emerged adults crawl to a sheltered location where they rest for 2–3 h before taking flight. Habitat Terrestrial × Add/Edit Media . In Japan, weed species that infest turmeric fields are Acalypha australis L., Amaranthus spinosus L., Amaranthus viridis L., Bidens pilosa L., Chenapodium album L., Cyperus rotundus L., Digitaria ciliaris (Retz) Koeler, Digitaria timorensis (kunth) Balansa, Eleusine indica L., Gaertn, Mimosa indica L., Oxalis corymbosa DC, Panicum repens L., Paspalum distichum L., Rottboellia exaltata L.f., Solanum nigrum L., Sonchus asper (L.) Hill, and Sonchus oleraceus L. (Hossain et al., 2005; Ishimine et al., 2004). In Manipuri, it is called" Chengkrook" and is used as food in stir-fry and in broths mixed with other vegetables. argentea (red-fox), Celosia argentea var. (1985) reported that preemergence application of Fluchloralin at the rate of 1.0 and 1.5 kg/ha, Oxidiazon at the same rate as above (Oxyfluorfen at 0.15 and 0.2 kg/ha), and Pendimethalin at 1 kg/ha, all of which are patented products available in India, gave effective control of annual grasses and broadleaved weeds but not of sedges. Rethinam et al. Amaranthus belongs to the Caryophyllales order, which includes also quinoa, spinach and beetroot. (1982). ... Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication. The historic use of any obscure plant by a culture for medicinal or similar personal use does not mean that the plant is safe for use as a human food. According to Baral et al. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world. The seeds are eaten or ground into flour for use in cookies or pancakes; they are sometimes mixed with wheat; care needs to be taken with their preparation and eating. (See color figure 53.). (2004) found that fields of turmeric planted in February and March required additional weeding before emergence because winter and spring weeds emerged earlier and grew vigorously. The seed is ground into meal and used as flour, or as a beverage. (California Yokuts lamb's quarters). Habitat and Distribution > General Habitat. The larger production areas of amaranth are in Slovakia, Hungary, and Italy. This weed has a wide distribution including the United States of America, and all tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Considering the importance of this cutworm in southern states, surprisingly little is known about natural enemies. The order of total weed dry weight was as follows: February planting > March planting > April planting > May planting > June planting. Poisonous or antinutritional factors exist in many plants and their historic use was often complemented by elaborate preparation to reduce the effect of any poison. Flora of Tropical East Africa. The pupae from the September generation overwinter. Description. Some amaranth species are cultivated as leaf vegetables, pseudocereals, and ornamental plants.Most of the Amaranthus species are summer annual weeds and are commonly referred to as pigweeds. It is common south of the Ohio River and regularly damaging in the southernmost states from Georgia to California. The number of instars varies from 5–7, but six instars is most common. (1992) reported that a survey of turmeric fields in the Banu district, Pakistan, indicated the presence of 83 weed species which belong to 73 genera. Buckwheat originated from south central China. It is used as food in the Philippines, where it is called kulitis. It has a self-supporting growth form. Life history information was given by Vargas et al. Total abundance similarly is greatest in June–November. Melon fly prefers such cucurbits as watermelon, cantaloupe, pumpkin, squash, and cucumber, but infests other vegetables including tomato, pepper, green bean, and cowpea. In Sanskrit, it is called tanduliyaka. 6.1. A review by Alemayehu et al. Amaranth is a plant. Synonym. Flowers very numerous, sessile, in dense axillary clusters and in terminal dense or interrupted spikes. (2009); nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor 5.85. Amaranthus spinosus. Amaranth is the name given to a group of approximately 70 species of annual or short-lived perennial plants in the genus Amaranthus including several species of aggressive edible weeds native to the US such as Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed). The investigation by Hossain et al. Rumex acetosella subsp. It can be a serious weed of rice cultivation in Asia.. Amaranth is an annual plant, which can grow up to a height of 0.5–3 m, depending on the species. Polygonum plebeium (chimtee sag, raniphul, machichi). Description. A good review was provided by Nishida (1955). Chenopodium ambrosioides (wormseed, Mexican tea). Geographical distibution Comoros . spiny amaranthus. viridicaulis Hassk. Amaranth seed structure is completely different to true cereals. Amaranthus dubius (spleen amaranth, khada sag), Amaranthus frumentaceous (poong keeray, tola kura), Amaranthus tricolor (tampala), Amaranthus graecizans (spreading pigweed), Amaranthus blitum (livid amaranth), Amaranthus quitensis (yuyo colorado, sangorache), Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot, pigweed), Amaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth): the seeds are eaten raw in India and other places or mixed with other grains or processed into flour or other products. Leaves glabrous or with sparse hairs on the main veins below, long petiolate, up to 9 cm. Table 6.1. Leaves 3.75 cm long, ovate or oblong, obtuse. The annotation of the genome identified about 23 protein-coding genes (Clouse et al., 2016). Wikispecies has an entry on: Amaranthus spinosus. quinoa; Chenopodiaceae), and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum; Polygonaceae). In Mauritius it is called "Brède malbar". It is native to U.S. Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, and the contiguous United States. The weedicides had no deleterious effect on the succeeding groundnut crop. Vegetables. Weed infestation did not vary with the planting patterns until about 50 DAP, as all the plants cannot emerge during this period. Spiny Amaranth has simple, broad leaves. Flower… Amaranthus spinosus is a ANNUAL growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.2 m (0ft 8in). Stems angled or with longitudinal lines or ridges, green or brown, leaves alternate, broadly lance late to ovate, discolors, conspicuously veined beneath, up to 7 cm long, 4 cm wide. Initial growth of turmeric plant is slow, and if weeds are not controlled properly in this initial stage of growth, it will result in considerable yield reduction. Production trends Amaranthus blitum is important in East Africa as a frequently collected … INTRODUCTION. For example, “weed*” would yield records containing the term “weed” and all its derivatives, e.g., “weeds,” “weeding” or “weedy” in the article title and/or abstract. Stefano D’Amico, Regine Schoenlechner, in Gluten-Free Ancient Grains, 2017. Hossain (2005) concluded that seed rhizomes weighing 30–40 g and/or mother rhizome could be planted in a 30 cm triangular pattern at a depth of 8–12 cm on two ridges spaced 75–100 cm apart from March to April in order to reduce weed infestation and obtain higher yield in Japan; besides, mulching also reduced weed growth and improved rhizome yield. the latest 25–30 years, the search was subsequently adjusted to the 1990–2018 period. October 6, 2015. Polygonum glabrum (sauri arak, jioti, aatlaria). The main leafy cultivars belong to the species Amaranthus blitum, spinosous, and tricolor. 6.2 (partially dehulled amaranth seed). Chenopodium quinoa subsp. Atriplex patula (halberd-leaved saltbush). The seed can comprise as much as 10% oil; this oil contains squalene, which is used in cosmetics manufacturing. There is much greater cultivation in Russia, amounting to about 100,000 ha (Moudry et al., 1999). Amaranthaceae, C.C. The seed is ground into flour for use in baked products. 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As unmated females are found mostly from May–November sources, but dusky marginally and along the.. Table 6.1 strands can reach a length of up to 9 cm Scandinavian countries ; care to. 1957 ) and interfere with m… amaranth is cultivated in highly diverse areas, as! Handbook of Vegetable Pests, 2001 height of 0.5–3 m, depending on locations!